Next Man (or Woman) Up?
Perhaps no group is as proficient at the art of clichéd answers as football coaches. When confronted with the season-ending injury of a star player, the coach will inevitably stare stoically into the camera and solemnly declare “Next man up.” Whether the coach truly believes that the replacement player will be adequate, the cliché is intended to convey the idea that the coach has created such a “culture of success” that the “Process” (two of the newer clichés) that the team’s performance will be unaffected.
From the perspective of family business, “Next Man or Woman Up” is one approach that the board of directors can take to management succession. Perhaps for some family businesses, management succession is as simple as pulling the next available candidate from the management depth chart. But we suspect that approach falls short for most family businesses. The combination of business growth, generational dynamics, and intra-family relationships that make family businesses unique precludes one-size-fits-all solutions to management succession. The primary questions associated with management succession are (1) Who will be the next leader of the business? and (2) How will the transition occur?
First Question: Who?
In our experience, many succession struggles are rooted in a failure to distinguish between being a good family member, a good employee, and a good business leader. The combination of native ability, education, character, social IQ, technical skills, and strategic savvy necessary to run a large business successfully is rare. The often-unspoken assumption that, since Dick has been a good son, or Jane a good daughter, that he or she is entitled to run the business when his or her turn comes up is unfair to the shareholders and employees of the business, not to mention Dick or Jane. While there are abundant examples of capable and energetic second, third or later generation family members that are great business leaders, it is a mistake to think that management of the business should simply be a matter of inheritance.
The second common myth is that since Bill and Suzie have demonstrated themselves to be great employees (in whatever functional area) that they will, therefore, be great leaders. Being good at one’s job does not guarantee success as the leader of a family business. Further, as companies grow, new challenges may require a different set of leadership skills than were required in the prior generation. The skills and personality traits that made Uncle Phil the ideal leader of the business twenty-five years ago may be different from what Cousin Carlton needs to possess for success in the same role today.
If the family has successfully distinguished family membership from family business management, it may be easier for the board to cast a wider net to find the best candidate to assume leadership of the business. Having an “outside” CEO does not mean the company has ceased to be a family business any more than hiring the first non-family employee on the shop floor did. Rather, it simply means that the directors have fulfilled their responsibilities to shareholders, employees and the community by seeking the right candidate for the job. Family members are by no means ruled out from consideration, but directors must acknowledge that the requisite skills may not reside in the family. And that’s okay. Having “professional” management may actually help family cohesion – and therefore business sustainability.
In many cases, the combination of outside perspective and family loyalty that make a successful leader can be found among the family’s in-laws. Such “married-ins” are often sufficiently removed from family dynamics that they can see business issues for what they are, uncolored by what may be decades’ worth of emotional baggage. At the same time, their membership in the family may give a head-start in aligning economic incentives. In other words, “married-ins” will likely have plenty of skin in the game.
Second Question: How?
In the long run, management succession is inevitable: the proportion of managers that are eventually replaced is 100%. In the short run, however, there are generally three circumstances giving rise to management succession.
1. Planned Retirement: When the senior executive is approaching a natural retirement age, the directors should identify potential candidates to replace the retiring leader. With a multi-year planning horizon, the board can give due consideration to family candidates, develop mentoring opportunities for those candidates, and evaluate the performance of those candidates in areas of increasing responsibility. If it becomes apparent that no family candidates represent the right fit for the job, the board can extend the search to include existing non-family employees and non-employees.
The appropriate retirement age for family business executives is a vexing issue. There simply is no one-size-fits-all for when a successful family business leader should step away. In our practice, we have seen examples of departures that – in hindsight – were premature, because the designated replacement was not yet ready to assume leadership. Perhaps more commonly, we see examples of businesses that plateau and stagnate because an aging senior executive refuses to move out of the corner office.
2. Performance-Driven Transition: We wrote in a previous post about the unique challenges associated with management accountability in family businesses. If the directors determine an existing senior executive is not generating acceptable results, it may be appropriate to seek a replacement. Family dynamics can make this an extremely difficult decision, and the prospect that such a decision may be in the best interest of the principal stakeholders (family shareholders, employees, local community, customers, suppliers, etc.) is one good reason to include qualified independent non-family members on the board. The independent directors can provide an objective assessment of managerial performance uncolored by internal family dynamics. If a performance-driven transition is necessary, the ultimate replacement should not be selected hastily; the long-run health of the business may be better served by a deliberate selection process, during which an experienced executive can manage the company on an interim basis.
3. Unexpected Vacancy: Finally, management succession may be forced upon the company because of an untimely illness, death, or other unforeseen circumstances. No business is immune to such circumstances, which underscores the need for directors to proactively think about management succession, even when the current leader is successful and expected to have a lengthy remaining tenure. When tragedy strikes, selecting the next leader should still be considered a measure-twice, cut-once project, with the long-term health of the organization taking precedence over the short-term desire to fill the position.
As noted in the Harvard Business Review, recent research by Stephanie Querbach, Miriam Bird, and Nadine Kammerlander offers some interesting insights into best practices for management succession in family businesses. After studying over 500 management successions, they concluded the likelihood that successor-managers would be able to implement needed changes and improve the long-term sustainability of the family business was linked to three strategies: (1) limiting the power of the outgoing CEO subsequent to his or her retirement, (2) crafting a formal agreement regarding the how and when of power transfer, and (3) selecting a non-family successor. Of course, these observations reflect probabilities – they’re not absolute prescriptions for how every succession should occur. But they do provide a somewhat counter-intuitive perspective on the topic that family businesses would do well to consider.
In the end, every management succession plan will be as unique as the family business it is designed for. But one constant for all family businesses is that now is the time to begin thinking and planning. “Next Man Up” may work in football, but your family business deserves better than that.