FAIR … The F-word in RIA M&A: Part 2

What Is a Fairness Opinion?


Last week we explained why RIA principals and board members should consider getting a Fairness Opinion; FAIR … The F-word in RIA M&A: Part I; When Do You Need A Fairness Opinion?.

Under U.S. case law, the so-called “Business Judgment Rule” presumes directors will make informed decisions that reflect good faith, care, and loyalty.  If any of these criteria are breached in a board-approved transaction, then the directors may be liable for economic damages.

RIA boards hire valuation and advisory firms like ours to opine on the fairness of contemplated transactions in an effort to protect themselves from potential liability.

In a challenged transaction, the “entire fairness standard” requires the court to examine whether the board dealt fairly with the firm and whether the transaction was conducted at a fair price to its shareholders.  As a result, Fairness Opinions seek to answer two questions:

  1. Is a transaction fair, from a financial point of view, to the shareholders of the selling company?
  2. Is the price received by the Seller for the shares not less than “adequate consideration” (i.e. fair market value)?

Process and value are at the core of the opinion.  A Fairness Opinion is backed by a rigorous valuation analysis and review of the process that led to the transaction.  Some of the issues that are considered include the following.


Process can always be tricky in a transaction.  A review of fair dealing procedures when markets have increased should be sensitive to actions that may favor a particular shareholder or other party.

Management Forecasts

A thorough analysis of management’s projections is a key part of a fairness analysis.  After all, shareholders are giving up these future cash flows in exchange for cash (or stock) consideration today.  Investment managers’ revenue is a product of the market, which over the past year has withstood significant volatility.  A baseline forecast developed in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic may be stale today.  Boards may want to consider the implications of the V-shaped market recovery on their company’s expected financial performance and the follow-through implications for valuation.


Deals negotiated mid-COVID, when it was unclear whether the market was in a V-shaped or W-shaped recovery, may leave your shareholders feeling like money was left on the table.  It is up to the board to decide what course of action to take, which is something a Fairness Opinion does not directly address.  Nevertheless, fairness is evaluated as of the date of the opinion, such that the current market environment is a relevant consideration.

Buyer’s Shares

If a transaction is structured as a share-for-share exchange, then an evaluation of the buyer’s shares in a transaction is an important part of a fairness analysis.  The valuation assigned to the buyer’s shares should consider its profitability and market position historically and relative to peers.  If the purchaser is a public company, it is imperative that all recent public financial disclosure documents be reviewed.  It is also helpful to talk with analysts who routinely follow the purchasing company in the public markets.

It is equally important to note what a Fairness Opinion does not prescribe, including:

  1. The highest obtainable price.
  2. The advisability of the action the board is taking versus an alternative.
  3. Where an RIA’s shares may trade in the future.
  4. The reasonableness of compensation that may be paid to executives as a result of the transaction.

Due diligence work is crucial in the development of the Fairness Opinion because there are no rules of thumb or hard and fast rules that determine whether a transaction is fair.  The financial advisor must take steps to develop an opinion of the value of the selling company and the investment prospects of the buyer (when selling stock).  We believe it is prudent to visit the selling RIA (if feasible), conduct extensive reviews of documentation, and interview management (either in person or virtually).

Fairness Opinions are often memorialized in the form of a Fairness Memorandum.  A Fairness Memorandum examines the major factors of the Fairness Opinion in some detail and summarizes the considerations of each factor for discussion by the board of directors.  In many cases, the advisors rendering the Fairness Opinion will participate in these discussions and answer questions addressed by the board.


Mercer Capital’s comprehensive valuation experience with investment managers enables us to efficiently provide reliable, unbiased Fairness Opinions that provide assurance to stakeholders that transactions underway are fair and reasonable. We’re happy to answer any preliminary questions you have on Fairness Opinions and when it makes sense to get one.